(scroll down this page for full species list)

                                Above: A Swallow-tailed Cotinga (Phibalura flavirostris) seen in early September 2010 with its mate, gathering nest material from the Indian Almond tree next to the guest house.

 Below-left, Channel-billed Toucan (Ramphastos vitellinus) which from May 2010 started coming daily to the feeder near the house.

                         

Sítio do Cervo offers birdwatchers the chance to see a wide range of lowland Atlantic Forest species within a small area, in comfortable and beautiful surroundings. Because of the variety of landscapes within the grounds -- open grassland, canopy forest with plenty of native bamboo, river bank, marshy areas, forest streams, forest edge and fishing lake -- species favouring each of these habitats are represented, as the list below shows. An additional advantage is an abundance of the endangered Euterpe edulis (juçara) palmetto or sugar palm, which attracts many species in its fruiting period between late February and June.



                                           TESTIMONIALS




 Violet-capped Woodnymph (Thalurania glaucopis) 
              One of 15 hummingbird species identified at Sítio do Cervo            

                                   Birds of Sítio do Cervo

 

This list includes all species identified with greater than 90% certainty from photos, sound recordings and observations since 2006.  Please contact us with any suspected inaccuracies, or if you spot a species not yet listed on one of the recordings.

In the totals, we are counting species heard or seen on or from the farm itself and its associated forest trails, and along the 2km track leading from the highway, which includes grassland, wetland and lake habitats. Taxonomic descriptions and threat status are based on Birdlife International and IUCN data, unless otherwise indicated.

Running totals:       Identified in total: 233 species
                                Species  Endemic to the Atlantic Forest region:  67
                                 Near-Threatened species according to IUCN criteria: 13
                                Vulnerable species: 5
                                Species with Restricted Range (ie less than 50,000 sq km) according to Birdlife International: 11

                                Species Threatened with Extinction in the State of São Paulo: 13

Photos Copyright Tim Hirsch, All Rights Reserved, unless other photographer is specified
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Recordings all made by Tim Hirsch, unless other recordist is specified. If reproduced online, please credit both recordist and location.


                                  TINAMIDAE – Tinamous (3)

Brown Tinamou – Crypturellus obsoletus - Inhambu-guaçu
Heard in forest year-round. Difficult to see, but song unmistakeable - wonderfully described in the guide"Birds of Greater São Paulo", written by Pedro Develey of SAVE - Brazil's partner organisation of Birdlife International - as "a rising series of whistles, like a traffic policeman's". Here are a recording from the balcony of the main house, and a close encounter on one of the forest trails, with the sonogram below. Between late August and October it has been heard singing at night.
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Tataupa Tinamou - Crypturellus tataupa - Inhambu chintã. Heard and recorded for the first time May 2010 from edge of forest above main house, subsequently heard freqently, including occasionally at night in breeding season.
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Yellow-legged Tinamou – Crypturellus noctivagus Jaó-do-litoralEndemicNear-Threatened (globally), ENDANGERED (São Paulo State). Heard all day from inside forest Sep-Feb, and more sporadically at dusk in other periods. At start of the breeding season in late August early September can be heard also at night. Difficult to see, but spotted after patient playback in Oct 2009. 


From the open areas of the estate,  several individuals can often be heard from different parts of the forest, calling to one another with their reverberant, ghostly song. In the first recording below, from the main forest trail, at least three individuals can be heard, one very close by, another in the middle distance, and one just audible in the background. The sonogram shows the way the call is concentrated towards the bottom of the frequency spectrum. You can also hear Red-rumped Cacique, Grey-hooded Attila, Rufous-capped Ant-thrush, Blond-crested Woodpecker, Channel-billed Toucan (distant) and briefly (at the end) Saw-billed Hermit. Plus the ubiquitous chickens.
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From April 2009, a slightly different call was heard for several months - with a slight crack in the first note, suggesting perhaps it was a juvenile. You can hear it in the background here, behind the much louder cheep of a Black-cheeked Gnateater.



                                  PHALACROCORACIDAE – Cormorants (1)

Neotropic Cormorant  -- Phalacrocorax brasilianus -- Biguá. Occasional visitor to fishing lake.



                                    ANHINGADAE – Anhingas (1)

Anhinga – Anhinga anhinga - Carará
. Seen flying overhead and taking off from river, May 2010.

                                                       ARDEIDAE -- Herons (4)

Rufescent Tiger Heron – Tigrisoma lineatum - Socó-boi. Regular visitor to lake, best seen early morning stalking the banks, will fly into nearby trees if disturbed. Also seen by riverbank early Jan 2009.




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Striated Heron – Butorides striata - Socozinho. Visits lake regularly.

Great Egret – Ardea alba - Garça-branca-grande. Occasional visitor to lake.

Little Blue Heron - Egretta caerulea - Garça-azul. Seen at lake December 2008.



                                    THRESKIORNITHIDAE -Ibises (1)

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Green Ibis – Mesembrinibis cayennensis - Coró-coró. Resident by river-bank, heard and seen very often in that area especially in mornings, heard flying over river early evening. Easily located from "gobble" sounded whilst perching in upper riverside branches, changing to a loud "coró coró" sounded continuously in flight. In the recording below, two individuals can be heard first perched about 10m up in a tree, then taking off across the river. 




                                CATHARTIDAE – Vultures (2) 
 
Black vulture – Coragyps atratus - Urubu-de-cabeça-preta. Often overhead and perched on electricity pylons near top entrance, seen circling high in large groups following updraughts. Light-coloured wing tips best fieldmark from below. 

                                         

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Turkey Vulture - Cathartes aura - Urubu-de-cabeça-vermelha. Often seen singly flying low over forest or occasionally perching. Distinguished from Black Vulture in flight by translucent wing feathers.


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ANATIDAE -- Ducks (2) 

White-faced Whistling-Duck -- Dendrocygna viduata -- Irerê. Heard and seen flying in formation over river early evening. The flight calls are deceptive, as they do not sound like ducks, and appear closer and softer than they actually are - the recording below is from a flock far overhead, flying along the course of the river several hundred metres from the main house where I was standing.


Brazilian Teal - Amazonetta brasiliensis -- Ananaí
. Seen regularly flying along the river.

                                            ACCIPITRIDAE – Hawks (9)

White-necked Hawk – Leucopternis lacernulatus - Gavião-pombo. Endemic Vulnerable (globally and in São Paulo state)
Seen regularly flying above forest, through the mid-storey and occasionally perched near house, entrance track and riverbank. Always sighted individually until December 2009, when a pair was seen circling above the house making aerobatic displays. (see photo sequence in slideshow below).


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Rufous-thighed Kite – Harpagus diodon - Gavião-bombachinha. Seen above forest and across river, also perching for long periods on high branches near house.



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Roadside hawk – Rupornis magnirostris - Gavião-carijó. Around constantly, perches for long periods on edge of open area. Call heard here (twice) with Golden-crowned Warbler in the foreground.

Grey-Bellied Hawk - Accipiter poliogaster - Tauató-pintado. Recorded by riverbank April 2011, at the time the first sound recording of this species in the whole of Brazil to be posted on the internet. Although it has a very large range there are few records and it is very rare in the state of São Paulo - ornithologist Bruno Lima has taken some photos of it in Peruibe on the coast around 50km from Sítio do Cervo. In the recording posted below, the two prominent calls are followed by a more distant one - which may be a second individual unless the bird flew quickly to call again.

                                           

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Black hawk-eagle -- Spizaetus tyrannus -- Gavião-pega-macaco. CRITICALLY ENDANGERED IN SÃO PAULO STATE Distinctive flute-like call heard very regularly in canopy, and often seen flying singly or in pairs above forest. Can sometimes be viewed perching from open areas near house. The Portuguese name means "Hawk that takes monkeys". The recording here was early morning from inside the forest, the hawk-eagle high up in the canopy but not seen. 

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Black and White Hawk-Eagle -- Spizastur melanoleucus -- Gavião Pato. Vulnerable in São Paulo State. Seen soaring above house May 2009, distinguishable in flight from White-necked Hawk by: larger size, mask around eyes, underside of wing and tail more complex banded colouring (white-necked hawk wing appears pure white with black outer ring).




Swallow-tailed Kite -- Elanoides forficatus -- Gavião-tesoura
. Seen over house and forest from  Sep-Oct 2008.


                                         

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Hook-billed Kite -- Chondrohierax uncinatus -- Caracoleiro. Seen perched by riverbank early  Oct 2008, feeding on unidentified prey, and overhead May 2010 - heard and recorded in canopy near river October 2010, and subsequently couple seen regularly at riverbank.


Grey-headed Kite -- Leptodon cayanensisHeard from direction of river, late pm Nov 2009, suspected sighting from across river April 2011.

                                                   

                                          FALCONIDAE - Falcons (4)


Laughing Falcon – Herpetotheres cachinnans - Acauã. Heard regularly from inside the forest, around sunset and early morning. In this recording you can hear the repeated, mocking song in the background behind some clucking chickens.
Collared Forest Falcon – Micrastur semitorquatus - Falcão-relógio. Heard frequently, after dusk and around dawn. In this dawn recording you can hear two individuals - one giving the rising "clock" song that provides the Portuguese name, and the other with the single, plaintive call. Juvenile seen from river bank October 2010.
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Suspected juvenile


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Yellow-headed Caracara – Milvago chimachima - Gavião-carrapateiro. Seen frequently in canopy at top of main trail , occasionally in palm trees near house. Its presence is often betrayed by its loud, hissy screech - like this one above the main forest trail. In this recording you can also hear the call of a Rufous-capped Antthrush nearby.


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Southern Caracara – Caracara plancus - Caracará. Seen regularly in open area by entrance and flying high above forest.







Photo: Bruno Lima



                                                CRACIDAE – Guans (1)

Dusky-legged guan – Penelope obscura - Jacuguaçu. Heard and seen most of year throughout the estate. Family groups often emerge at dusk to feed on fruit from the tall jerivá palms near the house, and can also be seen feeding on the Euterpe edulis palm when it fruits March-June. Very loud alarm call among the most distinctive sounds of the forest here.
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                                                       PHASIANIDAE -- Wood Quails (1)

Spot-winged Wood-quail
 -- Odontophorus capueira -- UruEndemicHeard nearly every evening calling from inside forest at dusk in 2009, less frequently in 2010.


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                                                  RALLIDAE – Rails (4)

Slaty-breasted Wood-rail – Aramides saracura -- Saracura-do-matoEndemic.  Heard often especially near river, seen regularly at forest edge, venturing out to open areas near guest house at dusk. Song frequently heard in duet, as in this recording and sonogram from the riverbank.


                                              
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Blackish Rail - Pardirallus nigricans - Saracura-sanã. Heard from distance on secondary trail May 2010, coming from direction of Nossa Fazenda. Suspected sighting on entrance track.
Common Moorhen (or Gallinule) - Gallinula chloropus - Frango d'Agua. Often seen on lake near highway.

Uniform Crake - Amaurolimnas concolor - Saracura lisa. Seen and heard in marshy area near river from October 2008, seen with chicks late November, pair heard near river mid-Dec. This recording was from the footbridge crossing the forest wetland - at the end you can hear the chatter of a Brazilian Squirrel.

                                     JACANIDAE --Jacanas (1)

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Wattled Jacana -- Jacana jacana -- Jaçanã. Often seen walking on lilies in lake at turnoff from highway, and in wetland area on approach road where it will fly off showing characteristic yellow underside of wings.


                                          



                                            Charadriidae - Plovers
Southern Lapwing – Vanellus chilensis -- Quero-quero
. Breeding pair resident year-round in open area, protecting 3-4 eggs in scrape below pool from August onwards. 

                                    COLUMBIDAE – Pigeons and Doves (7)

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Ruddy Ground Dove – Columbina talpacoti -- Rolinha Roxa. Seen constantly, in groups on ground and sometimes perched in trees close to house.







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Gray-fronted Dove – Leptotila rufaxilla -- Juriti-gemedeira. Seen and heard constantly - call interval faster (3-4 secs) than White-Tipped Dove. Often forages on ground below barbecue area but will fly back into forest when approached.



White-tipped Dove – Leptotila verreauxi -- Juriti-pupu. Seen and heard constantly - call interval slower (10-15 secs) than Grey-fronted dove.


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Pale-vented Pigeon - Patagioenas cayennensis -- Pomba-galega. Seen constantly, often perching in groups in canopy.









Picazuro Pigeon - Patagioenas picazuro - Pombão  Seen and heard frequently.

Plumbeous Pigeon - Patagioenas plumbea - Pomba amargosa. Confirmed sighting from across lake perched on exposed branch, 27 Jan 2009.

Ruddy Quail-Dove -
Geotrygon montana - Pariri. Dead individual found by house after crashing into window, April 2009, song heard from inside forest May 2010.


                                          PSITTACIDAE – Parrots (5)

Pileated Parrot (or Parakeet) – Pionopsitta pileata -- Cuiú Cuiú Endemic. Seen and heard sporadically  flying over forest.


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Blue-winged Parrotlet – Forpus xanthopterygius -- Tuim. Seen and heard constantly in various locations near house, including wooded area by feeders. 


Scaly-headed Parrot – Pionus maximiliani -- Maitaca-verde. Abundant year-round, seen daily flying in groups high over forest, perches mainly in upper forest area near entrance gate.
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Plain Parakeet – Brotogeris tirica -- Periquito Rico. Endemic Abundant year-round, often seen feeding in groups on bananas near house



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Maroon-bellied Parakeet - Pyrrhura Frontalis -- Tiriba-de-testa amarela. Endemic. Seen and heard often, gathered in groups Aug/Sep 2008 to feed on bananas near house. First individual seen on bananas Aug 3 2009 (pictured here).












                                              Cuculidae - Cuckoos (4)

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Squirrel Cuckoo – Piyaya Cayana -- Alma-de-gato. Seen and heard regularly at edge of forest.  

Striped Cuckoo - Tapera naevia - Saci. Heard and recorded from entrance track Oct 2010. 




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Smooth-billed Ani – Crotophaga Ani -- Anu-preto. Regular visitor to the farm in groups, very common in open areas along track to highway.


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Guira Cuckoo – Guira guira -- Anu-branco. Regular visitor in groups, very common in open areas along track to highway.


                                             


                                                 STRIGIDAE – Owls (6)

Tawny-browed Owl – Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana -- Murucututu. Endemic. Restricted Range. Heard sporadically from forest, especially near guest house.

Mottled Owl – Ciccaba virgata -- Coruja-de-bigodes. Heard often at night. 

Black-capped Screech-Owl – Megascops atricapilla - Corujinha-sapoEndemic. Heard constantly at night, probably most common owl species. 


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Tropical Screech-Owl - Megascops choliba - Corujinha-do-mato. Recorded just before dawn late December 2008, and heard regularly in following months. Juvenile (pictured here) found injured July 2009, apparently having been dropped by a hawk, and flew off after building up strength for a couple of days. 


Striped Owl - Pseudoscops clamatorCoruja-orelhuda. Heard often, especially before dawn.
Least Pygmy Owl - Glaucidium minutissimum - Caburé-miudinho. Heard near forest edge early morning.

                                          NYCTIBIIDAE – Potoos (1)

Common Potoo -  Nyctibius griseus - Mãe-da-lua. Heard often from forest at night and around dawn, especially in spring.  The second recording here is a juvenile.

                                         CAPRIMULGIDAE - Nightjars (2)

Short-tailed Nighthawk - Lurocalis semitorquatus - Tuju. Heard and seen often at dusk and dawn, flying low over and inside forest, and across open area.


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Common Pauraque - Nyctidromus albicollis - Curiango. Seen always at night on dirt track from highway, flying up in front of headlights. Song repeated over prolonged periods, in intervals of 30 secs or so.


                                         APODIDAE - Swifts (3)


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Grey-rumped Swift - Chaetura cinereiventris - Andorinhão-de-sobre-cinzento. Seen and heard often. 








White-collared Swift - Streptoprocne zonaris - Taperuçu-de-coleira-branca. Spotted near highway.


                                     TROCHILIDAE – Hummingbirds (15)

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Saw-billed hermit – Ramphodon naevius -- Beija-flor-rajado. Endemic Near-Threatened. Restricted Range. Seen and heard constantly in forest, especially on main trail to river, sometimes ventures into open areas and feeder.        


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Versicolored Emerald – Amazilia versicolor -- Beija-flor-de-banda-branca. Seen regularly at bromelias and other flowers (pictured here at flowering lychee), and at feeders. 






Glittering-throated Emerald - Amazilia fimbriata - Beija-flor-de-garganta-verde. Seen at feeder.

Sapphire-spangled Emerald - Amazilia lactea - Beija-flor-de-peito-azul. Identified in forest Nov 2009.

Black-throated Mango – Anthracothorax nigricollis -- Beija-flor-de-veste-preta. Seen regularly, including above river catching flies early Jan 2009. 
Violet-capped Woodnymph – Thalurania glaucopis -- Beija-flor-de-fronte-violeta. Endemic. Seen constantly at flowers and feeders.


Scale-throated Hermit - Phaethornis eurynome - Rabo-branco-de-garganta-rajada. Endemic. Seen near main house in November 2008.

Reddish Hermit – Phaethornis ruber -- Besourinho-da-mata. Seen at forest edge, especially around Costus spiralis (Spiral Ginger) plants.

Dusky-throated Hermit -- Phaethornis squalidus -- Rabo-branco-pequeno. Endemic Singing constantly from August 2008 to January 2009 in heliconia-rich area at forest edge.  From November, emerging into open to give spectacular displays. Lek observed again in full swing Aug 19 2009, and from July 30 2010.
Black Jacobin – Melanotrochilus fuscus -- Beija-flor-preto-e-branco.  Endemic. Seen constantly in spring and summer throughout property, including at feeders and catching flies over river.
Sombre Hummingbird - Aphantochroa cirrochloris -- Beija-flor-cinza. Endemic. Seen constantly near house and in forest - aggressively chases off other visitors to feeders, and perches tamely in trees close to upstairs balcony. 


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Black-eared Fairy - Heliothrix auritus -  Beija-flor-de-bochecha-azul. Seen close to house from August, will sometimes come right up to the terrace, unmistakeable with white, flapping tail feathers. For some reason very interested in blankets airing on balcony railings. In this recording, you can hear the wingbeats and cheep of the fairy recorded from very close, with the louder call of a White Woodpecker from about 15 metres away below the house.




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Festive Coquette - Lophornis chalybeus - Topetinho-verde Spotted on flowering fruit trees mid-August.
 






Sub-adult male



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White-chinned Sapphire - Hyocharis cyanus - Beija-flor-roxo.  Seen amongst citrus and lychee flowers, among the wildflowers in grassy area near top entrance and in flowering Inga trees early September. 






Swallow-tailed Hummingbird - Eupetomena macroura - Beija-flor-tesoura. Although very common in cities less abundant here, but seen at feeder Sep-Oct 2008 and near passion-fruit plant Sep 2010.


                                           


                                                     TROGONIDAE - Trogons (2)

White-tailed Trogon – Trogon viridis -- Surucuá-grande-de-barriga-amarela. Seen and heard constantly, sometimes in trees close to house.Keen on the fruit of the Euterpe edulis palmito, which it grabs in flight before returning to a nearby perch. In the first recording below, a White-tailed Trogon is heard first, followed by the similar but distinct song of its congener, a Black-throated Trogon (see below).
Black-throated Trogon - Trogon rufus - Surucuá-de-barriga-amarela.  Heard throughout forest but very hard to spot. Unlike White-tailed Trogon, it never ventures into the open areas near the house but remains in closed forest.

                      ALCEDINIDAE – Kingfishers (3)

Ringed Kingfisher – Ceryle torquatus -- Martim-pescador-grande. Seasonal visitor to lake (autumn to spring), seen and heard constantly after arrival -- in 2008 arrived April 20th, in 2009 Mar 26th. 
Amazon Kingfisher – Chloroceryle amazona -- Martim-pescador-verdeRegular visitor to lake and often seen at riverbank. 

Green Kingfisher - Chloroceryle americana - Martim-pescador-pequeno. Suspected sightings often, but confirmed female being chased off by Ringed Kingfisher as she tried fishing at the lake, June 2009. Smallest of the family here, but still giant compared to European kingfishers. Pair recorded flying low over river (below left) and returning flying higher in the other direction (below right), 30 April 2011.


                                  BUCCONIDAE -- Puffbirds (2)

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Crescent-chested Puffbird
- Malacoptila striata -- João-barbudo.
Endemic. Spotted and heard regularly at riverbank, seen once in Jambu tree near house - will stay very still in lower branches for long periods.












Buff-bellied Puffbird - Notharcus swainsoni - Macuru-de-barriga-castanha. Endemic Spotted beyond lake, May 2010, and shortly afterwards recorded from main trail.


                                        


RAMPHASTIDAE – Toucans (4)

Channel-billed toucan – Ramphastos vitellinus -- Tucano-de-bico-preto. Present in large groups year-round, most visible April-June eating fruit of Euterpe edulis palm. From Mid-May 2010 started coming daily to the banana feeder.
Red-breasted Toucan – Ramphastos dicolorus -- Tucano-de-bico-verde. Endemic. Present year-round in smaller groups, often together with Channel-billed Toucans. Often seen very close to house, either feeding on palmitos or nest-raiding in spring. Came to the banana feeder for several days in May 2010. In the recording below, heard amongst a flock of Azure Jays.
Saffron Toucanet – Baillonius bailloni -- Araçari-banana Endemic Near-Threatened (globally), Vulnerable (São Paulo State). Seen regularly esp. spring-summer, sometimes in jerivá palm. In Oct 2010 a pair seen daily in canopy near bedroom terrace. In recording below, the toucanet is heard with a Roadside Hawk and Palm Tanagers.
_Spot-billed Toucanet – Selenidera maculirostris -- Araçari-poca Endemic. Seen and heard  sporadically in forest interior, especially April-June. Recorded also in early November and heard throughout summer 2008-9. Responds to playback. Individual seen feeding on still-green fruit of juçara palm in open area, mid-Feb 2009. Most commonly seen in canopy from highest part of main trail to river.

                            PICIDAE – Woodpeckers (9)

Ochre-collared Piculet – Picumnus temminckii -- Pica-pau-anão-de-coleira. Endemic. Seen and heard constantly at forest edges and sometimes close to house, responds to playback.
Blond-crested Woodpecker – Celeus flavescens -- Pica-pau-de-cabeça-amarela. Seen and heard constantly, feeds on bananas, among the first calls to be heard at dawn.  
                                     Male                                                                           Female


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Lineated Woodpecker – Dryocopus lineatus -- Pica-pau-de-banda-branca. Seen and heard regularly, especially near river. 

Yellow-fronted Woodpecker – Melanerpes flavifrons -- Benedito-de-testa-amarelaEndemic. Seen and heard constantly in groups of three or four, nests in holes drilled in dead tree next to house. Always at banana feeders near house. Pair seen re-occupying holes (for the third year running) Aug 19 2009. Nesting tree collapsed Oct 2010 but the group is still around so they must have found another place to make their holes.
 


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White-spotted Woodpecker – Veniliornis spilogaster -- Picapauzinho-verde-carijó. Endemic. Seen and heard regularly, including on Queen Palm (jerivá) in front of bedroom terrace, August 2009.


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White Woodpecker - Melanerpes candidus -- Pica-pau-branco. Seen sporadically in groups in open area, behaving more like flycatchers than woodpeckers making aerobatic movements from the canopy. Group heard and seen by house Aug 6th 2009. 

Yellow-throated WoodpeckerPiculus flavigula -- Pica-pau-bufador. Seen and heard regularly in wooded area near house, though keeps more hidden than yellow-fronted and blond-crested woodpeckers. Responds well to playback.


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Campo Flicker - Colaptes campestris --Pica-pau-do-campo.Seen occasionally in open area above house (spotted Sep 11 on electricity pole) and on track from highway.


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Green-barred Woodpecker - Colaptes melanochlorus - Pica-pau-verde-barrado. Heard calling and spotted in bamboo near house, Sep 2008, photographed from bedroom terrace Jan 2009.











                                    RHINOCRYPTIDAE – Tapaculos (1)

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White-breasted Tapaculo – Eleoscytalopus indigoticus - Macuquinho. Endemic Near-Threatened. Heard regularly from undergrowth at edge of forest in various locations close to main farm, including by entrance track. Also in marshy area near riverbank. Can be coaxed out with playback. 

Photo and recording by Bruno Lima




                                  FORMICARIIDAE – Antbirds (6)

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Squamate Antbird – Myrmeciza squamosa -- Papa-formiga-de-grota. Endemic. Restricted Range. Heard and seen constantly in forest interior, also near entrance track. Very responsive to playback.


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Scaled Antbird – Drymophila squamata -- Pintadinho. Endemic. Heard constantly in forest interior, can be glimpsed and photographed with patience. 










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Spot-breasted Antvireo–Dysithamnus  stictothoraxChoquinha-de-peito-pintado. Endemic Near-ThreatenedRestricted Range. Heard constantly in forest interior and edges, stays in upper-midstorey and very difficult to see, associates strongly with Rufous-winged Antwren with which its song can be easily confused - in fact they often seem to answer one another.

Plain Antvireo - Dysithamnus mentalis - Choquinha-lisa. Heard May 2010 from upper mid-storey near secondary trail associating with Spot-breasted Antvireo.
White-shouldered Fire-eye – Pyriglena leucoptera - Olho-de-fogoEndemic. Heard constantly and seen regularly in forest interior, among the first on the scene in an antswarm. Responds very well to playback.

                                                   

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Male
Photo: Tasso Leventis


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Female

Rufous-capped Antthrush – Formicarius colma -- Galinha-do-mato. Heard constantly and seen regularly in forest. Very responsive to playback.

                            THAMNOPHILIDAE –Antwrens (6)

Variable Antshrike – Thamnophilus caerulescens -- Choca-da-mata. Heard constantly and seen regularly, especially near entrance track and by riverbank. Among first sounds of "dawn chorus" in spring-summer. One of very few species whose female has more interesting colouring than the male.
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                                    Immature Male                                                           Female
Giant Antshrike - Batara cinerea - Matracão. Heard from across lake early morning, Nov 2009.


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Unicolored Antwren – Myrmotherula unicolor -- Choquinha-cinzenta. Endemic Near-Threatened. Restricted Range. Heard and seen regularly in forest interior.









Streak-capped Antwren - Terenura maculata - ZidedêEndemicHeard on secondary trail Nov 2009.


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Star-throated Antwren - Myrmotherula gularis --Choquinha-de-garganta-pintada. Endemic . Restricted Range. Heard and seen regularly in forest, especially near river.




Rufous-winged Antwren – Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus -- Chorozinho-de-asa-vermelha. Heard constantly, stays in upper branches so very difficult to see, but occasionally appears in canopy near house. Associates strongly with Spot-breasted Antvireo with which song can be easily confused - in fact they often seem to answer one another.


                                CONOPOPHAGIDAE – Gnateaters (2)

Black-cheeked gnateater – Conopophaga melanops --Cuspidor-de-máscara-preta. Endemic. Seen and heard constantly in forest interior, approaches very close in undergrowth.
Rufous Gnateater - Conopophaga lineata - Chupa-dente. Heard frequently in forest, previously mistaken for Long-billed Gnatwren. Although this is associated more with mountain habitats, has recently been observed in lowland forests.

                              FURNARIIDAE – Ovenbirds (11)



Plain Xenops – Xenops minutus -- Bico-virado. Heard and seen often. 
Steaked Xenops - Xenops rutilans - Bico-virado-carijó. Heard and spotted in mid-storey near riverbank Sep 2010.


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Rufous Hornero – Furnarius rufus -- João-de-barro. Resident year-round on farm, building characteristic mud "oven" nests in angle of branches.


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Rufous-capped Spinetail Synallaxis ruficapilla -- Pichororé. Endemic. Seen and heard constantly in forest, especially near river and by entrance track. 







Spix's Spinetail (also Chicli Spinetail) Synallaxis spixi - João Teneném Heard on top entrance track in open grassy area, Feb 2009, and recorded March in long grass near forest trail entrance. 
Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper -- Lochmias nematura -- João-porca. Endemic Seen and heard constantly by stream in forest, hopping along the banks and sometimes singing from low branches in undergrowth.


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Yellow-chinned Spinetail -- Certhiaxis cinnamomeus -- Curutié. Often seen and heard on wetland area towards highway.





Photo: Tommy Pedersen


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Black-capped foliage-gleaner -- Philydor atricapillus - Limpa-folha-coroado. Endemic
 Very responsive to playback in forest interior.





White-eyed Foliage-gleaner -- Automolus leucophthalmus -- Barranqueiro-de-olho-branco.Endemic Identified from long recording of forest interior, March 2009. Responds very well to playback and attracts other ant-associated species.
Tawny-throated Leaftosser - Sclerurus mexicanus - Vira-folha-de-peito-vermelho. Heard from forest beyond lake, May 2010, first record of this species in S São Paulo State.
Rufous-breasted Leaftosser -- Sclerurus scansor -- Vira-folha. Endemic Alarm call heard in forest, Oct 2008, and again at dawn February 2009.

                                 DENDROCOLAPTIDAE – Woodcreepers (3)

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Plain-winged Woodcreeper (also Thrush-like Woodcreeper) – Dendrocincla turdina -- Arapaçu-liso*. Endemic Seen and heard often in forest, occasionally also on palms near house. Indicator of mixed-species flocks following army ant swarms, never misses the picnic. Responds very well to playback. 


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Lesser woodcreeper – Xiphorhynchus fuscus -- Arapaçu. Endemic. Heard and seen constantly, in forest and sometimes on trees near house.


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Olivaceous Woodcreeper - Sittasomus griseicapillus - Arapaçu-verde. Seen frequently in area of trees close to main house, and in forest interior. Extremely responsive to playback.






*The Birdlife International species index shows this bird "lumped" with the Plain-brown Woodcreeper, Dendrocincla fuliginosa, but I am sticking here with the listing of the Brazilian Committee on Ornithological Registration, which shows Dendrocincla turdina as a separate, endemic species. I'll leave it to the experts to fight it out!



                               TYRANNIDAE – Tyrant flycatchers (37)

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Yellow-olive flycatcher - Tolmomyias sulphurescens - Bico-chato-de-orelha-preta. Heard and seen often.


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White-throated spadebill – Platyrinchus mystaceus - Patinho. Seen in understorey near river summer 2008, and heard subsequently in same area.  


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Yellow-lored (Grey-headed) tody-flycatcherTodirostrum poliocephalum - Teque-teque. Endemic. Seen often, sometimes in "Indian almond" shade tree next to main house balcony. 

Common Tody-Flycatcher - Todirostrum cinereum - Ferreirinho-relógio. Heard in open area Sep 2010.


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Great Kiskadee – Pitangus sulphuratus --Bem-te-vi. Seen and heard constantly, nests in bromeliad on pine just in front of guest house.







Photo: Tasso Leventis


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Greyish Mourner -- Rhytipterna simplex -- Vissiá. Heard frequently in forest interior.









Photo: Bruno Lima

 

Eye-ringed tody-tyrant – Hemitriccus orbitatus -- Tiririzinho-do-matoEndemic Near-Threatened. Heard constantly from lower-mid storey at meeting of two trails, also from bridge over forest wetland. Can be seen with patience.
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Boat-billed flycatcher – Megarynchus pitangua -- Neinei. Seen and heard constantly from spring to autumn, especially noisy near house February 2009. 








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Southern Beardless Tyrannulet – Camptostoma obsoletum -- Risadinha. Seen and heard frequently in open areas.









Fuscous Flycatcher - Cnemotriccus fuscatus - Guaracavuçu. Seen near riverbank, identified from recording on main trail.
São Paulo Tyrannulet - Phylloscartes paulista - Não-pode-parar. Endemic Near-ThreatenedIdentified with reasonable certainty from recording of mixed-species understorey flock near river, June 2009.

Planalto Tyrannulet - Phyllomyias fasciatus - Piolhinho.  Heard in Feb 2009 and again in May.


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Grey-capped Tyrannulet - Phyllomyias griseocapilla - Piolhinho-serrano. Endemic Near-threatened Restricted Range. Spotted next to main house May 2010, song heard previously in forest.


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Gray-hooded flycatcher – Mionectes rufiventris -Abre-asa-de-cabeça-cinza Endemic. Seen regularly in forest. 

Grey-hooded Attila - Attila rufus - Capitão-de-saíra. Endemic. Heard from midstorey throughout the forest, sometimes emerges into open areas and responds strongly to playback.
Masked water tyrant – Fluvicola nengeta -- Lavadeira-mascarada. Resident year round in open area, very tame. Nests in small trees by lake and swimming pool.
White-headed Marsh-Tyrant - Arundinicola leucocephala - Freirinha. Spotted often on track to highway, amongst reeds in marshy area.


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Eared Pygmy-tyrant – Myiornis auricularis -- Miudinho. Endemic. Seen constantly, comes out nicely with playback near main trails and tracks. Often in front of forest edge at start of main trail.







Large-headed Flatbill – Ramphotrigon megacephalum - Maria-cabeçuda. Heard often late afternoon and on forest trail in morning.
Whiskered (formerly Sulphur-rumped) flycatcher – Myiobius barbatus -- Assanhadinho. Seen regularly especially near river bank. Apart from sulphur-coloured mark on back, distinguished by orange-gold chest contrasting with yellow belly.


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Sepia-capped Flycatcher – Leptopogon amaurocephalus - Cabeçudo. Heard and seen constantly, especially by forest edge, keeping 4-5 metres above ground. Responds excitedly to playback. 


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Social Flycatcher – Myiozetetes similis -Bem-te-vizinho. Seen and heard frequently.


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Cliff Flycatcher – Hirundinea ferruginea - Gibão-de-couro. Seen and heard constantly in open area around house, perching on bare trunk and nesting on house pillar ledge.

Sirystes - Sirystes sibilator - Gritador. Heard in forest behind house in afternoon,  May 2010, and recorded by river April 2011.


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Short-crested Flycatcher – Myiarchus ferox -- Maria-cavaleira. Seen frequently.









Swainson's Flycatcher - Myiarchus swainsoni - Maria-irré. Identified near barbecue area October 2009, previously probably mistaken for Short-crested flycatcher to which it is very similar.


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Long-tailed Tyrant – Colonia colonus -- Viuvinha. Seen frequently, especially spring and summer.


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Fork-tailed Flycatcher – Tyrannus savana -- Tesourinha-do-campo. Seasonal visitor, arrived mid-Sep 2008, seen only sporadically. Seen exactly the same time in 2009, near turnoff from highway.


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Tropical Kingbird – Tyrannus melancholicus - Suiriri. Seen constantly in spring and summer when it is very abundant, nested 2007 in acerola tree.







Crested Becard – Pachyramphus validus - Caneleiro-de-chapéu-preto. Nested spring 2007 in jerivá near house,  2008 and 2009 (two pairs) in pines near main house, and spring 2010 in pines near guest house. Regular spring-summer visitor.


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Streaked Flycatcher – Myiodynastes maculatus -- Bem-te-vi-rajado. Nests in jerivá palms near house in spring. Can be hard to spot as its markings provide good camouflage, but its location is given away by a penetrating call heard throughout spring and summer. 



Piratic Flycatcher – Legatus leucophaius -- Bem-te-vi-pirata. Regular spring visitor, used red-rumped cacique "hanging basket" to nest 2007-8.


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Variegated Flycatcher - Empidonomus varius - Peitica. Spotted and heard from across lake perched tall tree, November 2009. Distinguishable from Piratic Flycatcher by reddish-brown mark on shoulder. Photographed Dec 6th 2009 eating what appeared to be a moth next to banana feeder.


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Yellow-bellied Elaenia - Elaenia flavogaster -- Guracava-de-barriga-amarela. Seen near main house and on entrance track near upper gate.


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Vermilion Flycatcher - Pyrocephalus rubinus - Verão.
 Seasonal visitor, arriving late September 2008 for a couple of weeks, apparently "in transit". Male easily confused with male Brazilian Tanager due to scarlet colouring, but has black mask and lacks the tanager´s white mark at base of beak.





Tropical Pewee - Contopus cinereus - Papa-moscus-cinzento.
Heard in forest Oct 2008.


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Euler´s Flycatcher - Lathrotriccus euleri -- Enferrujado. Summer visitor seen and heard often at forest edge and riverbank.









PIPRIDAE – Manakins (3)

Swallow-tailed Manakin (also Blue Manakin)– Chiroxiphia caudata - Tangará Endemic Heard always in various parts of the forest, especially to the right of the entrance to the main trail, and just inside the forest to the right of the slope behind the main house where lekking songs were heard constantly in spring 2010. 


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White-bearded Manakin – Manacus manacusRendeira. Often heard in sparser parts of forest, especially by edge of entrance track and near jaboticaba tree by river, unmistakeable from clicks made by wing displays. Tends to stay in thick undergrowth so not easy to see - but will sometimes emerge into view.  



Female



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Pin-tailed Manakin - Ilicura militaris - TangarazinhoEndemic. Heard calling from forest just behind main house, May 2009, approached following playback at entrance to trail, May 2010.







Immature male







                                 COTINGIDAE - Cotingas (8)

Black-headed Berryeater – Carpornis melanocephala - Sabiá-pimenta. Endemic Vulnerable. Heard constantly throughout the year Sep 2007 until July 2008, and attracted to trees near the house and lake after much patience with playback - then disappeared but heard again April 2009 from palmito-rich part of forest. After another very long pause, heard singing again in May 2010.
Swallow-tailed Cotinga - Phibalura flavirostris - Tesourinha-da-mata. Near-threatened Pair seen and photographed gathering nest material beginning of September 2010, from mosses on sun-hat (Indian almond) tree near lake.
Shrike-like Cotinga - Laniisoma elegans - Chibante. Heard near top of main trail, Oct 2009.
Red-ruffed Fruitcrow – Pyroderus scutatus -- Pavó. Endemic. Seen regularly, especially during fruiting of Euterpe edulis palm, frequently heard "booming" especially in late winter and spring. Sightings most common in canopy from main trail and at river bank.


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Greenish Schiffornis -- Schiffornis virescens -- Flautim. Endemic. Heard constantly, seen flitting restlessly in mid-storey of forest interior, can be coaxed into view by playback. 

Bare-throated Bellbird – Procnias nudicollis  - Araponga . Endemic Vulnerable.  Metallic call heard constantly in  the forest, from August onwards, tailing off during the summer. Singing persistently from canopy near house through August and September 2009. Occasionally seen eating fruit of palmito Euterpe edulis next to house.
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Black-crowned Tityra - Tityra inquisitor - Anambé-branco-de-bochecha-parda. Heard from forest September 2010.


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Black-tailed Tityra -- Tityra cayana -- Anambé-branco. Individual found injured near house, November 2007, seen in canopy near river Oct 2008.











                                      HIRUNDINIDAE – Swallows (6)

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Brown-chested Martin - Progne tapera - Andorinha-do-campo. Seen mid-December at lake near highway.






Photo: Tommy Pedersen


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Grey-breasted Martin - Progne chalybea - Andorinha-doméstica-grande. Nested in roof of main house 2010, constantly swooping around from October onwards.






Subadult Male
Photo: Tommy Pedersen


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Blue and White Swallow–Notiochelidon cyanoleuca- Andorinha-de-casa-pequena. Seen constantly, nests in roof during spring


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Southern Rough-winged Swallow – Stelgidopteryx ruficollis -- Andorinha-serradora. Regular spring and summer visitors, seen in groups especially near fishing lake and riverbank.


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White-winged Swallow - Tachycineta albiventer - Andorinha-do-rio. Seen regularly singly and in pairs from river-bank, flying low over middle of river catching flies. Also spotted in wetland area en route from highway.





Photo: Tommy Pedersen


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White-rumped Swallow - Tachycineta leucorrhoa - Andorinha-de-sobre-branco.  Often seen flying aerobatically in pairs over the lake near highway, and sometimes in open area near house.





Photo: Tommy Pedersen




                                       TROGLODYTIDAE – Wrens (2)

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Southern House-wren – Troglodytes musculus - Corruíra. Seen and heard constantly.

Copyright Tommy Pedersen.


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Long-billed wrenCanthorquilus longirostris - Garrinchão-de-bico-grande. Heard constantly from forest, very responsive to playback.  





                                       
                                    




                                       MUSCICAPIDAE – Thrushes (5)

White-necked thrush Turdus albicollis - Sabiá-coleira. Seen often, heard constantly from August onwards from dawn onwards.


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Rufous-bellied thrush – Turdus rufiventris -Sabiá-laranjeira. Heard and seen constantly in open areas.



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Creamy-bellied Thrush – Turdus amaurochalinus - Sabiá-poca. Seen constantly in open areas.



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Pale-breasted Thrush - Turdus leucomelus - Sabiá-branco. Not noticed so often, but in full voice in pines and bamboo near house, Sep 2009 - recording below is from October 2010 on main trail in forest.


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Yellow-legged Thrush – Platycichla flavipes - Sabiá-una. Seen and heard regularly, most easily spotted during fruiting of Euterpe edulis palm April-May, occasionally (as here) dropping to ground. 



                                       POLIOPTILIDAE – Gnatcatchers (1)

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Long-billed Gnatwren – Ramphocaenus melanurus - Bico assovelado. Heard frequently, especially on riverbank trail. 


                                           VIREONIDAE - Vireos (2)

Rufous-browed Peppershrike - Cyclarhis  gujanensis - Pitiguari.
Heard frequently.


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Red-eyed Vireo - Vireo olivaceus - Juruviara. Long-distance spring migrant from North America,   sings constantly from upper branches. In Jan 2010, seen foraging in shade tree next to main house balcony (see photo).


                                                         PARULINAE - Wood Warblers (4)

Tropical Parula – Parula pitiayumi - Mariquita. Seen and heard constantly, especially in wooded area by main house. 


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Golden-crowned warbler Basileuterus culicivorus -Pula-pula. Seen constantly at forest edge and by river.

Photo copyright Tasso Leventis

                                         

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Masked Yellowthroat – Geothlypis aequinoctialis - Pia-cobra. Seen often in open grassy areas









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Neotropical River Warbler (also Riverbank Warbler)Phaeothlypis rivularis - Pula-pula-ribeirinho. Seen and heard regularly at stream near river. 

                           THRAUPIDAE – Tanagers (21)

Chestnut-bellied Euphonia – Euphonia pectoralis - Ferro-velho. Endemic. Heard and seen constantly, often in area near feeder.
Violaceous Euphonia – Euphonia violacea - Gaturamo-verdadeiro. Seen constantly in jerivá palms and bananas. 
Purple-throated Euphonia - Euphonia chlorotica - Fim-fim. Heard in feeder area near house.
Green-chinned Euphonia - Euphonia chalybea - Cais-cais.Endemic Near-Threatened Spotted from main house balcony, May 2010. 


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Sayaca Tanager – Thraupis sayaca - Sanhaçu-cinzento. Seen constantly.








Photo: Renato da Silva





Azure-shouldered tanager Thraupis cyanoptera - Sanhaço-de-encontro-azulEndemic Near Threatened. Restricted Range. Seen regularly feeding on fruit, easy to confuse with Sayaca Tanager - look for more blue on tail and darker colouring around eyes.
Golden-chevroned Tanager – Thraupis ornate - Sanhaçu-de-encontro-amarelo. Endemic. Seen constantly in spring and summer feeding on bananas, and in jerivá palms by main house, in 2009 visible by late July.
Video by Eduardo Duwe
Palm tanager – Thraupis palmarum - Sanhaço-do-coqueiro. Seen and heard constantly in jerivá palms near house. In the recording below, a nesting pair can be heard feeding chicks calling from inside the crown of the palm. 
Video by Eduardo Duwe
Brazilian Tanager – Ramphocelus bresilius - Tiê-sangueEndemic. Seen constantly near house, especially at feeders and in nearby fruit trees. Scarlet-coloured male usually accompanied by several females, orange-brown colouring and bolder.  


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Red-crowned Ant-Tanager – Habia rubica - Sanhaçu-de-asa-branca. Seen and heard constantly in forest interior, nuclear species in mixed flocks following army ant swarms. 

Green-headed TanagerTangara seledon -Saíra-sete-cores. Endemic. Seen constantly feeding on bananas, often in groups.


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Red-necked TanagerTangara cyanocephala - Saíra militar. Endemic. Seen regularly in wooded area near main house, and at forest edge near entrance track.


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Flame-crested Tanager – Tachyphonus cristatus -Tiê-galo. Seen regularly in wooded area near house, especially in Jambo tree in front of bedroom terrace.







Male


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Female

Ruby-crowned Tanager -- Tachyphonus coronatus - Tiê-preto. Endemic Seen in mixed flocks with other tanagers in front of house - can appear plain black as "ruby" spot on male is often not visible. 


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Fawn-breasted Tanager – Pipraeidea melanonota - Saíra-viúva. Seasonal visitor, pair arrived in banana area Sep 8th 2008, and seen by lake Sep 4th 2009, seen near house Sep-Oct 2010.

Blue Dacnis - Dacnis cayana - Sai-azul. Often seen around feeders and in canopy from terrace.

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Female or subadult male

Swallow Tanager - Tersina viridis - Saí-andorinha. Seen regularly perched on high, bare branches. Shown here by fishing lake Sep 2009. Large band of around twenty males and females seen flocking in canopy next to entrance track, April 2010.


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Green Honeycreeper – Chlorophanes spiza - Saí-verde. Seen occasionally bathing in bromelia

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Black-goggled Tanager - Trichothraupis melanops - Tiê-de-topete. Seen with mixed antbird flock in forest interior.

Olive-green Tanager - Orthogonys chloricterus - Catirumbava. Endemic Restricted Range. Occasional winter visitor from mountains, heard late July in forest.

Rufous-headed Tanager - Hemithraupis ruficapilla - Saira-ferrugem. Endemic. Spotted with mixed flock in canopy, late August.



                                     COEREBIDAE – Bananaquit (1)

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Bananaquit – Coereba flaveola - Cambacica. Seen and heard constantly, especially on fruit trees and bananas.


                                       


                                       EMBERIZINAE – Finches (8)

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Saffron Finch – Sicalis flaveola - Canário-da-terra. Pair resident in open area, very tame. Also seen in larger flocks in winter.


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Rufous-collared Sparrow Zonotrichia capensis - Tico-tico. Seen and heard constantly



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Double-collared seedeater – Sporophila caerulescens - Coleirinho. Seen and heard constantly, nested in passion-fruit vine.








Temminck’s seedeater – Sporophila falcirostris - Cigarra-verdadeira Endemic Vulnerable. Restricted Range. Identified in forest bamboo during April survey, and heard near house early Oct 2008.

Buffy-fronted Seedeater -- Sporophila frontalis - Pixoxó. Endemic Vulnerable. Restricted Range. Identified from recording of "dawn chorus" from house early September 2007.


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Lined Seedeater -- Sporophila lineola - Bigodinho. Seen regularly in open areas.






Photo: Tommy Pedersen



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Uniform Finch – Haplospiza unicolor - Cigarra-bambu. Endemic. Seen in August 2007 in dead fronds hanging from jerivá palm.


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Blue-black grassquit – Volatinia jacarina - Tiziu. Seen hopping in grass at cleared area near entrance.




                                     


                                CARDINALINAE – Saltators (1)

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Black-throated Grosbeak – Saltator fuliginosus - Bico-de-pimenta Endemic Seen occasionally, heard more often in covered forest.








                                              


                           ICTERINAE – Blackbirds (3)

Red-rumped Cacique – Cacicus haemorrhous - Guaxe. Extremely common year-round, gather in flocks around sunset, feed on hanging bananas.


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Giant Cowbird - Molothrus oryzivorus - Iraúna-grande. Seen walking in open field above house, December, and again in canopy flock in pines and main forest trail, May 2009.

                                         

Shiny Cowbird - Molothrus bonariensis - Chopim. Very common, often seen walking on ground.


                                                CORVIDAE - Crows and Jays (1)

Azure Jay – Cyanocorax caeruleus - Gralha-azul. Endemic Near Threatened. Heard and seen often in flocks in canopy, sometimes mixing with toucans, especially near river but also close to house.  

                                 ESTRILDIDAE  - Waxbills (1)

Common Waxbill - Estrilda astrild - Bico-de lacre. Exotic. Seen in groups near lake by highway. Reputedly introduced to Brazil as pets on slave ships from Africa in the early 19th century.